Health consequences of low energy availability in female athletes

Ackerman RED-S female athletes energy deficiency sports

For all young athletes, having the necessary energy to participate in sports — while also supporting a growing body — is imperative to their overall health. The Female Athlete Triad is a well-known consequence of low energy availability in female athletes and can result in menstrual dysfunction and decreased bone mineral density.

Recently, the focus has turned from the Triad to a more inclusive term; Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, or “RED-S.” This syndrome also appears to be a result of low energy availability, but has health consequences other than menstrual dysfunction and bone health in females and acknowledges that relative energy deficiency can happen in males.

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Functional abdominal pain: ‘The pain is real’

A guide for PCPs to functional abdominal pain

As physicians, we are trained on the classic medical model. A patient has a symptom, we do a test, we find a disease, we give a therapy, and the issue goes away. Unfortunately, chronic diseases like functional abdominal pain do not fit neatly into this model.

The majority of the hundreds of thousands of children a year who experience abdominal pain will improve with time. But for some children, their pain becomes chronic and debilitating. According to the Rome IV guidelines, once a child has experienced eight weeks of abdominal pain, we have to consider functional abdominal pain. …Read More

Clinical Consult: Headaches in children

How to treat headaches in childrenHeadache is exceedingly common in pediatric practice and a significant source of parental worry (“Could it be a brain tumor?”). A detailed patient history and exam should seek to differentiate between primary and secondary headache and identify any “red flags.” Imaging is performed when there is an indication the headache could be attributed to a structural brain lesion. A diagnostic workup is not needed if the history is reassuring and the exam normal. …Read More

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Learning disabilities: Kids and families struggle beyond the academics

Boy with learning disabilities struggles with homework

Most research on learning disabilities focuses on remediating specific academic skills like reading and math. But struggles at school and with homework can create an enormous amount of stress and anxiety for children and families, says neuropsychologist Deborah Waber, PhD, who directs the Learning Disabilities Program at Boston Children’s Hospital. …Read More